Prevalence and Associates of Foot Deformities among Patients with Diabetes in Jordan

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Authors: Ababneh A, Bakri FG, Khader Y, Lazzarini P, Ajlouni K
Publication: Current diabetes reviews
Year: 2019


To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, people with foot deformities, among patients with diabetes in Jordan.


A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 diabetic participants recruited from the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics in Jordan. Participants had their feet clinically examined to detect the following foot deformity outcomes: Hallux valgus, claw/hammer toe, prominent metatarsal heads, limited joint mobility, pes cavus, Charcot foot, and amputations. Sociodemographic and health variables were also collected from participants’ interviews, medical records, or clinical examination. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between variables and each foot deformity outcome.


Of the 1000 diabetic patients: Hallux valgus was found in 17.4%, claw\hammer toe in 16%, prominent metatarsal head in 14.2%, limited joint mobility in 9.4%, pes cavus in 3.2%, Charcot foot in 2.1%, and amputations in 1.7%. Hallux valgus was associated with gender (p=0.012), age (p<0.01) and shoe choices (p=0.031); claw\hammer toe was associated with age (p=0.04), retinopathy (p<0.001), sensory and painful neuropathy (p<0.001); limited joint mobility was associated with age only (p=0.001); Charcot foot was associated with glycemic control (p=0.016), hypertension (p<0.000), sensory neuropathy (p<0.001), and painful neuropathy (p<0.001); and, amputations were associated with duration of diabetes (p<0.043), sensory neuropathy (p=0.001), and painful neuropathy (p=0.001).


Prevalence of different foot deformities in Jordan variated between 1.7% – 17.4%. Sociodemographic factors such as age, gender and shoes choices or presence of diabetes-related microvascular complications (neuropathy and retinopathy) or hypertension were independently associated with foot deformities among the Jordanian diabetic population.

  • Listing ID: 6692
  • Author/s: Ababneh A, Bakri FG, Khader Y, Lazzarini P, Ajlouni K
  • Publication: Current diabetes reviews
  • Year: 2019
  • Article Keywords: Diabetes complications; Jordan; diabetic foot; etiology; foot deformities; prevalence